With the rapid development of the hotel industry, well-known hotel management companies at home and abroad are competing in this market full of unlimited business opportunities. Catering is an important part of hotels. Especially in this ancient country that advocates food and beverage culture, food and beverage is not only a food but also a cultural issue. As a food processing, production and service sector of star hotels, hotel catering competes in the industry. The business strategy has been continuously adjusted and the grade of catering tastes has been continuously upgraded. As a kitchen that provides material guarantee for catering production, it appears even more pressured and heavily responsible in the competition. In recent years, it has been popular, and the continuous introduction of new modern kitchens and open kitchen design concepts is not only the product of catering competition, but also the need to constantly adjust and improve the functions of the kitchen in the form of competition. Under the situation of abundant supply, it is increasingly urgent for modern hotels to continuously improve the design and layout of their kitchens.
The importance of kitchen design <br /> The quality of the kitchen design, scientific and reasonable, not only affects the direct investment of the hotel and the recent production quality, but also has a long-term impact on the kitchen production scale and product structure adjustment. The work efficiency and physical and mental health of employees have an impact that cannot be underestimated and will directly affect the hotel's later operating conditions.
Basic principles of design and layout of kitchen engineering equipment
1. The design of the entire hotel kitchen must meet the general principles of fire protection, sanitation, and environmental protection, with superior layout, smooth processes, and reasonable configuration.
2. In line with the principle of kitchen production process. The layout of the kitchen should properly position the equipment in turn according to the processes of purchase, acceptance, item processing, cutting, cooking, etc. Only in this way can each kitchen's processes run smoothly, effectively connect, and prevent cross-dislocation in the work process, affecting work effectiveness.
3, adhere to the principle of separation of raw and cooked. In order to effectively prevent cross-contamination accidents during food processing, five specialties must be processed for cooked foods; that is, manual operation, special operating tools, special storage equipment, special disinfection facilities, and special production equipment.
4. The principle of separate cold and hot, dry and wet. The kitchen must be separated from the cooking area. Because various cooking stoves in the cooking area emit high temperatures, they will affect the raw and cold raw materials placed in a certain range, accelerate the deterioration rate of raw materials, and affect the heat dissipation and refrigeration functions of refrigeration equipment. The storage requirements of food raw materials are quite different, and the requirements of dryness and humidity are also different. Dry goods and seasoning raw materials must not be wet, and fresh raw materials must not be dry.
5. The principle of convenience and safety. The layout of kitchen equipment should be considered to facilitate the operation of cleaning and maintenance. The aisle between the main equipment of the kitchen must meet a reasonable distance for the user's operation according to the requirements of use. The aisle in the working area must not be narrower than 1.2 meters, the general aisle must not be narrower than 0.7 meters, and the main fire escape must not be less than 1.5 meters.
6. Scientific and humane management principles. With the development of the catering industry, the design of the kitchen is gradually becoming scientific and humane. That is, in the design of the kitchen, the scientific rationality in the kitchen operation process and the flexibility of kitchen management should be considered.
Kitchen design requirements <br /> Cooking kitchen, responsible for cutting, pulping raw materials, according to different production specifications such as zero and banquet, the main ingredients, ingredients and small ingredients are reasonably blended and cooked in an appropriate time Into a finished product that meets the flavor requirements; and then deliver the finished product to the guests in the shortest possible time. Therefore, its design must meet the following requirements: 1. The cooking kitchen and the corresponding restaurant must be on the same floor to ensure the timely production of the cooking kitchen And meet the quality requirements of color, fragrance and taste, cooking kitchen should be close to the restaurant corresponding to its flavor. Although some restaurants are restricted by the venue or building structure and pattern, the processing or snacks in the kitchen, or even the cold room or barbecue production room, may not be on the same floor as the restaurant, and the cooking room must be on the same floor as the restaurant. Considering the efficiency and safety of transferring dishes, especially for large-volume production such as conferences and teams, trolleys may be required. Therefore, the cooking kitchen and the restaurant should be on the same plane, and there must be no drop, no steps. 2. As the cooking kitchen has more heating equipment, the entire room temperature of the kitchen (without air conditioning or fresh air equipment installed) is between 28 and 32 degrees. This temperature brings a lot of difficulties to the quality storage of raw materials, so cooking the kitchen The raw materials used for compounding must be stored in the refrigeration equipment at any time, so as to ensure the quality of the raw materials and the safety of the products. During the interval between meals and at the end of dinner, the seasonings, soups, raw materials, semi-finished products and finished products must be stored at low temperature nearby. Therefore, it is necessary to design and equip with sufficient refrigeration equipment. Similarly, the cooking kitchen is responsible for the cooking of various types of dishes in the restaurant. Therefore, in addition to the cooking stoves suitable for the scale of the restaurant, restaurant management, and restaurant management flavors, it should also be equipped with a certain amount of steaming, frying, frying, grilling, stewing And other equipment to improve the production grade. 3. The smoke extraction effect is better. The cooking kitchen will produce a large amount of oil fume, candle gas and emitted steam every day. If it is not discharged in time, it will linger in the kitchen or even flow into the restaurant, which will affect hotel safety and pollute guests. Dining environment. Therefore, above the stoves, steamers, steamers, ovens and other equipment that generates oil fume and steam, it must be equipped with powerful smoke extraction and fresh air supply facilities, and strive to achieve 50-60 air changes per hour in the kitchen. The negative pressure zone is really formed to create a fresh air environment, which is convenient for cooking staff to judge the taste of dishes. 4. Conveyance of ingredients and cooking ingredients should be convenient. The ingredients and cooking should be in the same open workspace. The distance between ingredients and cooking area should not be too far to improve the efficiency of transferring vegetables. Guests should pre-order the dishes in advance, after preparation, there should be a certain work surface or stand for temporary cooking. Do n’t transfer all the dishes that have been served to the cooking table (duck stand) to avoid the disorder of the order. 5. It is necessary to set up a place and special equipment for urgently killing live fresh and sashimi production to meet consumers' requirements for the freshness of raw materials and the speed of food delivery. After ordering and ordering fresh ingredients such as sea, river, and game, the guests have confirmed that most of them want to cook and serve them in a short time. Therefore, for the slaughter of fresh raw materials, it is necessary to design and configure a dedicated pool and a workbench that are easy to operate to ensure that its operation is still very convenient during busy meals. The production of sashimi raw materials requires strict hygiene and low temperature environment. In addition to strict management specifications for production personnel and their operations in management, the above factors should also be fully considered in design and equipment. It is very beneficial to set up relatively independent work rooms and create a small environment with low temperature, hygiene and convenient storage of raw materials.
Types and Functions of Kitchens <br /> The production place for the order must have the following elements:
1. Production staff (chef, cook and related staff with certain professional skills);
2. Facilities and equipment necessary for production;
3. Necessary production space and site;
4. Cooking raw materials;
5. Energy, etc.
The design layout of the kitchen is closely related to the functional requirements of the kitchen. A management scientist in the United States once said that in addition to the kitchen design layouts of chain stores or associated restaurants being roughly the same in the world, it is impossible to find two kitchens with the same design layout. Different types of kitchens have different requirements in terms of design layout. Therefore, it is particularly important to first understand the type of kitchen and the production functions of the kitchen.
The types of kitchens are described in terms of their scale, meals and functions:
I. Divided by kitchen scale
1. Large-scale kitchen Large-scale kitchen refers to a large-scale production kitchen that can provide many guests with meals at the same time. Comprehensive restaurants generally have 500 guest rooms and restaurants with more than 1,500 restaurants, and most have large kitchens. This large kitchen is a combination of multiple kitchens with different functions. Each kitchen has a clear division of labor and coordination, and undertakes large-scale production and production of the hotel. Single-function restaurants and restaurants have an operating area of 1200 square meters and more than 800 seats. Most of their kitchens are large kitchens. This large kitchen has different functions due to the restaurant's multiple flavors. Its main business is a large-scale kitchen with a variety of flavors. It has a wide range of venues, centralized design, and unified management. When operating a large-scale kitchen with several flavors, it needs to be classified into designs, subdivided management, and overall management.
2. Medium-sized kitchen A medium-sized kitchen refers to a kitchen that can produce and provide about 500 guests at the same time. The medium-sized kitchen area is relatively large, and most of them will be designed and integrated in processing, production and production.
3. Small kitchens Small kitchens refer to kitchens that produce and serve 200-300 guests at the same time. For small kitchens, most of them involve centralized design of various types of work and positions in the kitchen, and comprehensive layout of equipment. They occupy a large area but are more regular, and their flavors are more specific.
4. Super-small kitchen Super-small kitchen refers to a kitchen with a single production function and a very limited service capacity. Such as setting up a restaurant, cooking on the spot for guests on the spot, open files, luxury suites in restaurants or kitchenettes in presidential suites. This type of kitchen is often used with other kitchens to complete production tasks. Although this kitchen is small, its design is relatively delicate, convenient and beautiful.
2. Dividing catering according to catering flavor categories. According to their operating flavors, they can be divided into Chinese food and Western food from the big style, and subdivided by flavor style. , Government, halal, vegetarian, etc .; Western food can be divided into French, American, Russian, Italian and so on. Correspondingly, the kitchen can be divided into:
1.Chinese food kitchen
1) Cantonese kitchen
2) Szechuan cuisine kitchen
3) Huaiyang cuisine kitchen
4) Lu Cai Kitchen
5) Court dishes kitchen
6) Halal dish kitchen
7) Vegetarian kitchen ...
1) French cuisine kitchen
2) American cuisine kitchen
3) Russian cuisine kitchen
4) British cuisine kitchen
5) Italian cuisine kitchen ...
3.Other flavor dishes kitchen
1) Japanese food kitchen
2) Korean BBQ Kitchen
3) Thai food kitchen ...
3. Divide the kitchen production function according to the kitchen production function, that is, the main work or task undertaken by the kitchen. Its production function is consistent with the corresponding restaurant function and the overall kitchen division of labor.
1. Processing kitchen The processing kitchen is mainly responsible for the preliminary processing of various cooking ingredients (slaughtering, depilation and washing of fresh raw materials), the rise of dry goods raw materials, knife processing of raw materials, and storage of raw materials.
The processing kitchen is also called a processing center in some large hotels at home and abroad, and is responsible for the processing of cooking ingredients required by the cooking kitchens in the restaurant. Due to the large daily workload of the processing kitchen, the ingress and egress of goods, and the large amount of garbage and water consumption, many restaurants have set them up in low-level places with convenient access, easy drainage and hidden areas.
2. Banquet kitchen The banquet kitchen refers to the kitchen for production service in the banquet hall. Most restaurants set up such kitchens in order to ensure the scale and grade of the banquet. There are multi-function restaurants, and the banquet kitchen is responsible for the cooking and production of various large and small banquet halls and multi-function halls.
3. Zero-point kitchen The zero-point kitchen is a kitchen specially used for the production of temporary and scattered dishes for customers. That is, the restaurant corresponding to the kitchen is an a-la-carte restaurant. The à la carte restaurant is a restaurant for customers to choose and order food, so there are more varieties of dishes included in the menu management, the kitchen preparation workload is heavy, and the meal period is very busy. This kitchen is designed with enough equipment and space to facilitate production and produce on time.
4. Cold dish kitchen Cold dish kitchen is a place for processing and producing cold dishes. The process of making cold dishes is different from that of hot dishes. Generally, they are first processed and cooked, and then cut and filled with plates. Therefore, the design of cold dishes has stricter requirements in terms of hygiene and the overall working environment temperature. Cold dish kitchens can also be divided into cold dish cooking and making kitchens (such as processing brine, grilling or marinating, and scalding cold dishes, etc.) and cold dish serving kitchens, which are mainly used for placing and distributing finished cold dishes.
5. Pastry kitchen Pastry kitchen is a place for processing and making pasta, snacks and rice porridge. Chinese food is also called dim sum room, and Western food is mostly called pastry room. Due to the particularity of its production materials, the cuisine production is significantly different, so the pasta production is called the white case, and the dish production becomes the red case. Each restaurant has a different division of labor, and the production tasks of the noodle kitchen are not all the same. The high-end pastry kitchen also includes desserts and chocolate eclairs.
6. Cafe Kitchen (Western Kitchen)
Cafe kitchen is the place responsible for the production and production of dishes served in the cafe. The 24-hour food delivery kitchen is actually a Western or cafeteria. Most of the cafe's varieties are ordinary dishes and drinks. Therefore, the cafe kitchen equipment is relatively well-equipped, and production is quick. Because of this feature, many restaurants use it as the restaurant's longest operating day, and its kitchen has the function of making meals in the guest room.
7. Barbecue Kitchen The barbecue kitchen is a place specially used for processing and making barbecue dishes. Barbecue dishes such as roasted suckling pig, barbecued pork, roasted duck, etc., need to be equipped with special production rooms due to their processing and hot dishes, common cold dishes, and time finished products. Barbecue kitchens generally have higher indoor temperatures and more difficult working conditions. The finished products are often transferred to cold dishes or cold dishes.
8. Fast food kitchen The fast food kitchen is a place for processing and making fast food. Fast food is relative to restaurant dinner or banquet dinner food. Most fast-food kitchens are equipped with frying pans and frying pans, which are convenient for quick cooking and production. Its finished products are relatively simple and economical, and its smooth production process and efficient savings are its salient features.
How to design a kitchen <br /> 用途 The purpose and process design of a kitchen is extremely important in restaurants, hotels and guesthouses. An ideal design solution not only allows the chef to work closely with the staff of the relevant department in an orderly manner, but also provides a good and comfortable environment for making delicious dishes. As a result, customers can get better service and continue to increase customer return rates. Conversely, a poorly designed design may cause the chef to be uncomfortable when using the equipment and utensils, and not be able to use his cooking skills to affect the quality. After a long time, it will inevitably affect the reputation of the restaurant or hotel.
Therefore, when designing the kitchen, the layout of the entire kitchen equipment should be reasonably arranged and designed according to the site conditions and the functions and requirements of the restaurant, and the plan of the kitchen equipment should be adjusted in accordance with the requirements of the gas company, health and epidemic prevention, environmental protection, and fire protection departments. , While taking full account of the actual situation of future construction, installation and acceptance. When designing a kitchen layout plan, you should strictly abide by the following principles: understand the customer's kitchen's established dishes, the design is centered on it; strictly follow the principle of separating raw and cooked food, and ensure that the kitchen is hygienic. Under this premise, try to shorten the conveying process as much as possible to make the road clear; the kitchen space and working position are reasonably arranged to ensure that the chefs can perform their duties and cooperate with each other to improve production and quality; the layout of kitchen utensils and utensils has a reasonable space to open the horizon , Easy to manage; try to transform or use unreasonable original devices as much as possible in order to comply with economic principles; the exhaust system in the kitchen to maintain air circulation and no sultry as the basic goal, in order to make the kitchen have a comfortable working environment ; Kitchenware complies with fire, hygiene and environmental regulations to ensure safety and avoid damage.